An argument against enforcing secularism in the near east

Provision shall be made for the religious minorities to freely profess and practice their religions and develop their cultures. At the same time, one significant stream of secularism has come from religious minorities who see governmental and political secularism as integral to the preservation of equal rights.

Bruckner in: Chervel,Seeliger67 n23 P. The Wafd party supported the allies during World War II and then proceeded to win the parliamentary elections, following these elections the prime minister was overthrown by the King leading to riots.

Tilak attracted mostly Hindu support and alienated some non-Hindus.

islam and secularism pdf

The answer lies in the willingness of those who hold power and legitimacy over religion to choose to not employ women's bodies as a means by which they represent the state's identity.

The Federal Shariat Court can strike down any law deemed un-Islamic, though its decisions can be overturned by the Supreme Court of Pakistan.

Women's organizations are less interested in contributing to the polarization of society between Islamists and secularists but rather in actual reforms that will grant more rights and freedoms to all Egyptian citizens. Meanwhile, in the United States throughout the nineteenth century, though secular principles organized political life, a variety of religions flourished, partly because the equal treatment of different Christian churches in America left people free to join or found a religion of their choice.

On the other hand, the religious Gandhi and his agnostic fellow Congress leader Jawaharlal Nehru were in agreement that the national movement and ultimate national government of a united India should be secular in its policies and treat all religions equally.

Acknowledgements The author would like to thank the Council on Foreign Relations for supporting the research for this article through the International Affairs Fellowship; Ambassador Nabil Fahmy, Dean of the School of Public Affairs and Public Policy at the American University in Cairo for welcoming the author's research on Egyptian politics in —; Professor Merit Janow, Dean of the School of International and Public Affairs at Columbia University for providing a bridge to the American University in Cairo; Ambassador Magda Shahin, former Assistant Minister of Foreign Affairs and Director of the Prince Alwaleed Center for American Studies and Research for engaging the author in Egyptian women's efforts to advise the Committee of Fifty on the drafting of the constitution; and the countless unnamed Egyptians who generously shared their political views with the author despite the risks.

Now that is easier said than done. Some societies become increasingly secular as the result of social processes, rather than through the actions of a dedicated secular movement; this process is known as secularization.

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Secularism & its discontents